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Whats is Fake news ?

Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, often with sensationalist, exaggerated, or patently false headlines that grab attention.Intentionally misleading and deceptive fake news is different from obvious satire or parody which is intended to humor rather than mislead its audience. Fake news often employs eye-catching headlines or entirely fabricated news stories to increase readership, online sharing and Internet click revenue. In the latter case, it is similar to sensational online "clickbait" headlines and relies on advertising revenue generated from this activity, regardless of the veracity of the published stories.Fake news also undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.

Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, which have come to provide competition for legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections. An analysis by Buzzfeedfound that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 news stories on the election from 19 major media outlets.

Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have also been credited, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel. The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics.

With the expansion of technology, the need for views and ratings has been increasingly higher. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is a necessity in order to please advertisers that pay for advertising on their websites. If publishing a story with false content will produce a big caption and attract viewers it may be worthy producing in order to benefit advertisers and ratings.

Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:

1.satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
2.false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
3.misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
4.false content ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
5.imposter content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
6.manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
7.fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")

(IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news. Its main points are:

*Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
*Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
*Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
*Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
*Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
*Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
*Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgement)
*Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).

Source: Wikipedia 

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